Cloning (

Cloning is the process of producing individual organisms with identical genomes, either by natural or artificial means. In nature, some organisms produce clones through asexual reproduction; this reproduction of an organism by itself without a mate is known as parthenogenesis. In the field of biotechnology, cloning is the process of creating cloned organisms of cells and of DNA fragments.

The artificial cloning of organisms, sometimes known as reproductive cloning, is often accomplished via somatic-cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), a cloning method in which a viable embryo is created from a somatic cell and an egg cell. In 1996, Dolly the sheep achieved notoriety for being the first mammal cloned from a somatic cell. Another example of artificial cloning is molecular cloning, a technique in molecular biology in which a single living cell is used to clone a large population of cells that contain identical DNA molecules.

In bioethics, there are a variety of ethical positions regarding the practice and possibilities of cloning. The use of embryonic stem cells, which can be produced through SCNT, in some stem cell research has attracted controversy. Cloning has been proposed as a means of reviving extinct species. In popular culture, the concept of cloning—particularly human cloning—is often depicted in science fiction; depictions commonly involve themes related to identity, the recreation of historical figures or extinct species, or cloning for exploitation (i.e. cloning soldiers for warfare).

Source: Cloning (

Scientists grow whole model of human embryo, without sperm or egg

Scientists have grown an entity that closely resembles an early human embryo, without using sperm, eggs or a womb. The Weizmann Institute team say their "embryo model", made using stem cells, looks like a textbook example of a real 14-day-old embryo.

First synthetic human embryo raises ethical issues

Scientists have created the first synthetic human embryos - using no eggs or sperm - provoking deep ethical questions, according to reports. The synthetic embryos - only days or weeks old - could help researchers study the earliest stages of human development and explain pregnancy loss.

How extinct animals could be brought back from the dead

Millions of years ago thylacines, also known as Tasmanian tigers, were widespread across Australia. About the size of an American coyote, these dog-like creatures with stripes disappeared from the mainland around 2,000 years ago.

Statue of Henrietta Lacks to replace Robert E Lee

BBC News, WashingtonA black American woman - whose cells were taken without consent 70 years ago and have helped save millions of lives - will get a statue at a spot that once hosted a monument to Confederate General Robert E Lee.

Tasmanian tiger: Scientists hope to revive marsupial from extinction

Researchers in Australia and the US are embarking on a multi-million dollar project to bring the Tasmanian tiger back from extinction. The last known one, officially called a thylacine, died in the 1930s.

Pet cloning is getting more popular despite the cost

When John Mendola's beloved pet dog was diagnosed with terminal cancer he decided to have her cloned. Mr Mendola is a retired New York police officer. Back in 2006 he was on duty at a station on Long Island when a small, scruffy stray dog was brought in.

Nature and Wildlife: Could woolly mammoths come back from extinction?

Woolly mammoths roamed some of the coldest places on Earth before becoming extinct around 4,000 years ago, but a new bioscience company, has plans to bring them back.

May Prehistory Thunder Forward: the Resurrection of the Woolly Mammoth

MAY PREHISTORY THUNDER FORWARD. We have the DNA,the technology and the leading experts in the field. Next, we will have the Woolly Mammoth. Alive again.

Human cells grown in monkey embryos spark ethical debate

Monkey embryos containing human cells have been made in a laboratory, a study has confirmed. The research, by a US-Chinese team, has sparked fresh debate into the ethics of such experiments.

'Better' DNA out of fossil bones

Improved technologies for extracting genetic material from fossils may help us find out more about our ancient ancestors. Scientists in Israel have just developed a new technique to retrieve better quality, less contaminated DNA from very old remains, including human bones.

'Ethical' stem cell crop boosted

US researchers have found a way to dramatically increase the harvest of stem cells from adult tissue. It is a practical step forward in techniques to produce large numbers of stem cells without using embryos.

Ancestor's DNA code reconstructed

Scientists have re-constructed part of the genetic code that would have existed in a common ancestor of placental mammals, including humans. The creature, thought to be a nocturnal shrew-like animal, lived alongside dinosaurs about 75 million years ago.

Clone 'would feel individuality'

Scientists drew their conclusions after interviewing identical twins about their experiences of sharing exactly the same genes with somebody else. The team said the twins believed their genes played a limited role in shaping their identity.

Cloned cattle food safe to eat, say scientists

Meat and milk from cloned cattle and their offspring are safe to consume, independent scientists have said. The Advisory Committee on Novel Foods and Processes said it believed the food was unlikely to present any risk.

Dolly expert is to clone embryos

The creator of Dolly the sheep has been granted a licence to clone human embryos for medical research. Professor Ian Wilmut and Kings College London scientists will clone early stage embryos to study motor neurone disease (MND).

Concern over human cloning claims

A US fertility specialist is planning to implant a cloned human embryo in a woman's womb but experts say it is "unethical and irresponsible". Doctor Panos Zavos is to hold a press conference in London on Saturday to announce the latest details of his cloning research.

Extinct cave bear DNA sequenced

Scientists have extracted and decoded the DNA of a cave bear that died 40,000 years ago. They plan to unravel the DNA of other extinct species, including our closest ancient relatives, the Neanderthals.

Extinct mammoth DNA decoded

Scientists have pieced together part of the genetic recipe of the extinct woolly mammoth. The 5,000 DNA letters spell out a large chunk of the genetic code of its mitochondria, the structures in the cell that generate energy.

China's new human gene-editing rules worry experts

New rules in China to regulate gene editing in humans don't go far enough, a leading expert has warned scientists. Dr Joy Zhang of Kent University, a global expert on the governance of gene editing in China, said authorities are susceptible to "regulatory negligence".

Genome editing

Genome editing, or genome engineering, or gene editing, is a type of genetic engineering in which DNA is inserted, deleted, modified or replaced in the genome of a living organism.

Scientists get 'gene editing' go-ahead

UK scientists have been given the go-ahead by the fertility regulator to genetically modify human embryos. It is the first time a country has considered the DNA-altering technique in embryos and approved it.

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