Slavery (

Slavery and enslavement are both the state and the condition of being a slave, who is someone forbidden to quit their service for an enslaver, and who is treated by the enslaver as their property. Slavery typically involves the enslaved person being made to perform some form of work while also having their location or residence dictated by the enslaver. Many historical cases of enslavement occurred when the enslaved broke the law, became indebted, or suffered a military defeat; other forms of slavery were instituted along demographic lines such as race. The duration of a person's enslavement might be for life, or for a fixed period of time, after which freedom would be granted. Although most forms of slavery are explicitly involuntary and involve the coercion of the enslaved, there also exists voluntary slavery, entered into by the enslaved to pay a debt or obtain money. In the course of human history, slavery was a typical feature of civilization, legal in most societies, but it is now outlawed in most countries of the world, except as a punishment for a crime.

In chattel slavery, the enslaved person is legally rendered the personal property (chattel) of the slave owner. In economics, the term de facto slavery describes the conditions of unfree labour and forced labour that most slaves endure.

In 2019, approximately 40 million people, of whom 26 percent were children, were enslaved throughout the world despite it being illegal. In the modern world, more than 50 percent of enslaved people provide forced labour, usually in the factories and sweatshops of the private sector of a country's economy. In industrialised countries, human trafficking is a modern variety of slavery; in non-industrialised countries, enslavement by debt bondage is a common form of enslaving a person, such as captive domestic servants, forced marriage, and child soldiers.

Source: Slavery (

'There's power in names': Antigua unearths lost ancestors

At precisely 47.5 years old, house carpenter "Polydore" - surname absent - is cited as a "good workman" and the property of His Majesty King George. So reads a 1785 register of enslaved Africans in Antigua in which Polydore appears among hundreds of others.

Earl and Countess of Wessex: Why Grenada wanted to talk to royals about slavery

Negative headlines followed the Duke and Duchess of Cambridge's tour of the Caribbean, while hours before they they landed for their own tour, the Earl and Countess of Wessex cancelled a visit to Grenada. So what did Grenadians want to tell the royals about Britain's past?

The last known ship of the US slave trade

"It's crazy to think they would have sailed right past here," Darron Patterson said, pulling his car onto a scrap of grass overlooking the murky Mobile River.

Dutch King Willem-Alexander retires coach amid slavery row

The Netherlands' King Willem-Alexander has announced that Dutch royals will cease using a historic golden carriage amid a debate over slavery links. Critics say that one side of the horse-drawn carriage, called De Gouden Koets, is decorated with an image that glorifies the country's colonial past.

'I'll be at front of queue to change my slave name'

Descendants of African slaves have told the BBC they will change their surnames, after a Dutch city decided to make the procedure free of charge.

Amsterdam mayor apologises for city's role in slave trade

The mayor of Amsterdam in the Netherlands has formally apologised for the city's role in slavery, as the country reckons with its colonial past. Femke Halsema said it was "time to engrave the great injustice of colonial slavery into our city's identity".

German boy, 11, calls police over housework

A boy of 11 called a German police emergency line to complain of "forced labour" after his mother told him to help clean the home.Police say the boy from Aachen, who has not been identified, spoke to an officer via the 110 number.They say he complained: "I have to work all day long.

'My Nigerian great-grandfather sold slaves'

Amid the global debate about race relations, colonialism and slavery, some of the Europeans and Americans who made their fortunes in trading human beings have seen their legacies reassessed, their statues toppled and their names removed from public buildings.


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