A quantum computer is a computer that takes advantage of quantum mechanical phenomena.At small scales, physical matter exhibits properties of both particles and waves, and quantum computing leverages this behavior, specifically quantum superposition and entanglement, using specialized hardware that supports the preparation and manipulation of quantum states.Classical physics cannot explain the operation of these quantum devices, and a scalable quantum computer could perform some calculations exponentially faster (with respect to input size scaling) than any modern "classical" computer. In particular, a large-scale quantum computer could break widely used encryption schemes and aid physicists in performing physical simulations; however, the current state of the art is largely experimental and impractical, with several obstacles to useful applications. Moreover, scalable quantum computers do not hold promise for many practical tasks, and for many important tasks quantum speedups are proven impossible.The basic unit of information in quantum computing is the qubit, similar to the bit in traditional digital electronics. Unlike a classical bit, a qubit can exist in a superposition of its two "basis" states, which loosely means that it is in both states simultaneously. When measuring a qubit, the result is a probabilistic output of a classical bit, therefore making quantum computers nondeterministic in general. If a quantum computer manipulates the qubit in a particular way, wave interference effects can amplify the desired measurement results. The design of quantum algorithms involves creating procedures that allow a quantum computer to perform calculations efficiently and quickly.Physically engineering high-quality qubits has proven challenging. If a physical qubit is not sufficiently isolated from its environment, it suffers from quantum decoherence, introducing noise into calculations. Paradoxically, perfectly isolating qubits is also undesirable because quantum computations typically need to initialize qubits, perform controlled qubit interactions, and measure the resulting quantum states. Each of those operations introduces errors and suffers from noise, and such inaccuracies accumulate.National governments have invested heavily in experimental research that aims to develop scalable qubits with longer coherence times and lower error rates. Two of the most promising technologies are superconductors (which isolate an electrical current by eliminating electrical resistance) and ion traps (which confine a single ion using electromagnetic fields).In principle, a non-quantum (classical) computer can solve the same computational problems as a quantum computer, given enough time. Quantum advantage comes in the form of time complexity rather than computability, and quantum complexity theory shows that some quantum algorithms for carefully selected tasks require exponentially fewer computational steps than the best known non-quantum algorithms. Such tasks can in theory be solved on a large-scale quantum computer whereas classical computers would not finish computations in any reasonable amount of time. However, quantum speedup is not universal or even typical across computational tasks, since basic tasks such as sorting are proven to not allow any asymptotic quantum speedup. Claims of quantum supremacy have drawn significant attention to the discipline, but are demonstrated on contrived tasks, while near-term practical use cases remain limited.Optimism about quantum computing is fueled by a broad range of new theoretical hardware possibilities facilitated by quantum physics, but the improving understanding of quantum computing limitations counterbalances this optimism. In particular, quantum speedups have been traditionally estimated for noiseless quantum computers, whereas the impact of noise and the use of quantum error-correction can undermine low-polynomial speedups.
Source: Quantum computing (wikipedia.org)
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Imagine a world where encrypted, secret files are suddenly cracked open - something known as "the quantum apocalypse". Put very simply, quantum computers work completely differently from the computers developed over the past century.
Physicists have drawn up construction plans for a large-scale quantum computer. These super-fast machines promise to revolutionise computing, harnessing the world of quantum mechanics to solve problems that are beyond reach for even the most advanced "classical" ones.
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Google says an advanced computer has achieved "quantum supremacy" for the first time, surpassing the performance of conventional devices.
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The research claimed to have found evidence of an elusive subatomic particle Microsoft suggested could help the development of more powerful computers. But it now says mistakes were made.
They don't often pose for goofy photographs - the members of the Quantum Hacking group at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), and the Centre for Quantum Technologies at the National University of Singapore. But everyone wants their picture taken with Eve.
Researchers have created a "quantum state" in the largest object yet. Such states, in which an object is effectively in two places at once, have until now only been accomplished with single particles, atoms and molecules.
What is a quantum computer and when can I have one? It makes use of all that "spooky" quantum stuff and vastly increases computing power, right? And they'll be under every desk when scientists finally tame the spooky stuff, right? And computing will undergo a revolution no less profound than the one
One of the most complex efforts toward a quantum computer has been shown off at the American Physical Society meeting in Dallas in the US. It uses the strange "quantum states" of matter to perform calculations in a way that, if scaled up, could vastly outperform conventional computers.
A novel high-speed, high-security computing technology will be compatible with the "cloud computing" approach popular on the web, a study suggests.Quantum computing will use the inherent uncertainties in quantum physics to carry out fast, complex computations.
Researchers have devised a penny-sized silicon chip that uses photons to run Shor's algorithm - a well-known quantum approach - to solve a maths problem.
A quantum computer is a computer that exploits quantum mechanical phenomena. At small scales, physical matter exhibits properties of both particles and waves, and quantum computing leverages this behavior using specialized hardware.
D-Wave Systems Inc. is a Canadian quantum computing company, based in Burnaby, British Columbia, Canada. D-Wave was the world's first company to sell computers to exploit quantum effects in their operation.
The next generation of computers may make use of the "spin" of electrons instead of their charge. Spintronics relies on manipulating these spins to make them capable of carrying data.
quantum computing computer