Memory is the faculty of the mind by which data or information is encoded, stored, and retrieved when needed. It is the retention of information over time for the purpose of influencing future action. If past events could not be remembered, it would be impossible for language, relationships, or personal identity to develop. Memory loss is usually described as forgetfulness or amnesia.Memory is often understood as an informational processing system with explicit and implicit functioning that is made up of a sensory processor, short-term (or working) memory, and long-term memory. This can be related to the neuron. The sensory processor allows information from the outside world to be sensed in the form of chemical and physical stimuli and attended to various levels of focus and intent. Working memory serves as an encoding and retrieval processor. Information in the form of stimuli is encoded in accordance with explicit or implicit functions by the working memory processor. The working memory also retrieves information from previously stored material. Finally, the function of long-term memory is to store through various categorical models or systems.Declarative, or explicit, memory is the conscious storage and recollection of data. Under declarative memory resides semantic and episodic memory. Semantic memory refers to memory that is encoded with specific meaning. Meanwhile, episodic memory refers to information that is encoded along a spatial and temporal plane. Declarative memory is usually the primary process thought of when referencing memory. Non-declarative, or implicit, memory is the unconscious storage and recollection of information. An example of a non-declarative process would be the unconscious learning or retrieval of information by way of procedural memory, or a priming phenomenon. Priming is the process of subliminally arousing specific responses from memory and shows that not all memory is consciously activated, whereas procedural memory is the slow and gradual learning of skills that often occurs without conscious attention to learning.Memory is not a perfect processor, and is affected by many factors. The ways by which information is encoded, stored, and retrieved can all be corrupted. Pain, for example, has been identified as a physical condition that impairs memory, and has been noted in animal models as well as chronic pain patients. The amount of attention given new stimuli can diminish the amount of information that becomes encoded for storage. Also, the storage process can become corrupted by physical damage to areas of the brain that are associated with memory storage, such as the hippocampus. Finally, the retrieval of information from long-term memory can be disrupted because of decay within long-term memory. Normal functioning, decay over time, and brain damage all affect the accuracy and capacity of the memory.
Source: Memory (wikipedia.org)
I was only three years old when my parents, sister and I emigrated from Leningrad in the USSR to the United States in 1980 as “traitors”, losing our Soviet citizenship and turning our backs on Communism for the “evil capitalist West”.
Children can remember memories from their earliest years, but forget most of them later, according to research. Events from well before the age of two can be recalled, suggests a Canadian study of around 100 young children aged 4 to 13.
That's the positivity effect. Happy memories tend to remain in your mind in more vivid details, while negative memories fade Now, you probably have a moody friend who is scoffing at this, because they can spout a long list of ways life has wronged them over the years. Or maybe you're that friend.
The world's largest catalogue of Beatles-related recollections will be unveiled in Liverpool this week. The 3,000 memories, from 69 nations, could help scientists better understand how music can help humans tap into the long forgotten events of their lives.
The brain's ability to function can start to deteriorate as early as 45, suggests a study in the British Medical Journal. University College London researchers found a 3.6% decline in mental reasoning in women and men aged 45-49.
Scientists in the US have mapped out how the brain organises language. Their "semantic atlas" shows how, for example, one region of the brain activates in response to words about clothing and appearance.
How many times has this happened to you? You leave work, decide that you need to get groceries on the way home, take a cellphone call and forget all about your plan. Next thing you know, you’ve driven home and forgotten all about the groceries. Or this. You decide, perhaps circa Jan.
Scientists have used scans to shed more light on how the brain deals with the memory of unpleasant or traumatic events during sleep. The University of California, Berkeley team showed emotional images to volunteers, then scanned them several hours later as they saw them again.
A gene therapy technique which aims to ease memory problems linked to Alzheimer's Disease has been successfully tested in mice.US scientists used it to increase levels of a chemical which helps brain cells signal to each other.
Scientists believe a common heart medicine may be able to banish fearful memories from the mind. The Dutch investigators believe beta-blocker drugs could help people suffering from the emotional after-effects of traumatic experiences.
Scientists are trying to understand how amnesiacs can lose all memory of their past life - and yet remember music. The answer may be that musical memories are stored in a special part of the brain.
memory human memory