Artificial intelligence (AI) is intelligence demonstrated by machines, as opposed to the natural intelligence displayed by animals and humans. AI research has been defined as the field of study of intelligent agents, which refers to any system that perceives its environment and takes actions that maximize its chance of achieving its goals.The term "artificial intelligence" had previously been used to describe machines that mimic and display "human" cognitive skills that are associated with the human mind, such as "learning" and "problem-solving". This definition has since been rejected by major AI researchers who now describe AI in terms of rationality and acting rationally, which does not limit how intelligence can be articulated.AI applications include advanced web search engines (e.g., Google), recommendation systems (used by YouTube, Amazon and Netflix), understanding human speech (such as Siri and Alexa), self-driving cars (e.g., Tesla), automated decision-making and competing at the highest level in strategic game systems (such as chess and Go). As machines become increasingly capable, tasks considered to require "intelligence" are often removed from the definition of AI, a phenomenon known as the AI effect. For instance, optical character recognition is frequently excluded from things considered to be AI, having become a routine technology.Artificial intelligence was founded as an academic discipline in 1956, and in the years since has experienced several waves of optimism, followed by disappointment and the loss of funding (known as an "AI winter"), followed by new approaches, success and renewed funding. AI research has tried and discarded many different approaches since its founding, including simulating the brain, modeling human problem solving, formal logic, large databases of knowledge and imitating animal behavior. In the first decades of the 21st century, highly mathematical-statistical machine learning has dominated the field, and this technique has proved highly successful, helping to solve many challenging problems throughout industry and academia.The various sub-fields of AI research are centered around particular goals and the use of particular tools. The traditional goals of AI research include reasoning, knowledge representation, planning, learning, natural language processing, perception, and the ability to move and manipulate objects. General intelligence (the ability to solve an arbitrary problem) is among the field's long-term goals. To solve these problems, AI researchers have adapted and integrated a wide range of problem-solving techniques – including search and mathematical optimization, formal logic, artificial neural networks, and methods based on statistics, probability and economics. AI also draws upon computer science, psychology, linguistics, philosophy, and many other fields.The field was founded on the assumption that human intelligence "can be so precisely described that a machine can be made to simulate it". This raised philosophical arguments about the mind and the ethical consequences of creating artificial beings endowed with human-like intelligence; these issues have previously been explored by myth, fiction and philosophy since antiquity. Computer scientists and philosophers have since suggested that AI may become an existential risk to humanity if its rational capacities are not steered towards beneficial goals.
Source: Artificial intelligence (wikipedia.org)
During World War II, Spitfire pilots described their plane as so responsive it felt like an extension of their limbs. Fighter pilots of the 2030s, however, will have an even closer relationship with their fighter jet.
A crewless ship designed to recreate the Mayflower's historic journey across the Atlantic 400 years ago has crossed the ocean, project bosses have said. The Mayflower Autonomous Ship (MAS) completed a 2,700-mile (4,400km) trip from Plymouth in the UK to Halifax in Nova Scotia, Canada, on Sunday.
Image source, Getty ImagesA Google engineer says one of the firm's artificial intelligence (AI) systems might have its own feelings and says its "wants" should be respected.
Most of us have been told by a friend that we have a doppelganger - some stranger they passed on the street who bore an uncanny resemblance to you. But imagine if you could create your very own twin, an exact copy of yourself, but one that lived a purely digital life?
When you buy something at the supermarket, what makes you pick one brand - or one product - over another? Retailers invest huge sums trying to understand this decision-making process, or influence it, in a UK grocery market worth almost £200bn.
If you have ever dreamed of earning money from a stellar music career but were concerned you had little talent, don't let that put you off - a man called Alex Mitchell might be able to help.
Google-owned artificial-intelligence company DeepMind has announced a big achievement in competitive computer programming. After simulating 10 contests, with more than 5,000 participants, AI system AlphaCode has ranked in the top 54% of competitors.
Artificial intelligence can tell whether it is going to rain in the next two hours, research suggests. Scientists at Google-owned London AI lab DeepMind and the University of Exeter partnered with the Met Office to build the so-called nowcasting system.
For football fans around the globe the pinnacle of the sport is the World Cup final. But what if that match was ultimately just the precursor to a game between the best humans and the best robots?
image copyrightGetty ImagesA master player of the Chinese strategy game Go has decided to retire, due to the rise of artificial intelligence that "cannot be defeated".Lee Se-dol is the only human to ever beat the AlphaGo software developed by Google's sister company Deepmind.
"When you start coding, it makes you feel smart in itself, like you're in the Matrix [film]," says Janine Luk, a 26 year-old software engineer who works in London.Born in Hong Kong, she started her career in yacht marketing in the south of France but found it "a bit repetitive and superficial".
Artificial intelligence has been used to predict the structures of almost every protein made by the human body. The development could help supercharge the discovery of new drugs to treat disease, alongside other applications.
Artificial intelligence and machine learning exist on the back of a lot of hard work from humans. Alongside the scientists, there are thousands of low-paid workers whose job it is to classify and label data - the lifeblood of such systems.
Scientists have come up with a computer program that can master a variety of 1980s exploration games, paving the way for more self-sufficient robots. They created a family of algorithms (software-based instructions for solving a problem) able to complete classic Atari games, such as Pitfall.
Facebook is facing criticism after it emerged it had conducted a psychology experiment on nearly 700,000 users without their knowledge. The test saw Facebook "manipulate" news feeds to control which emotional expressions the users were exposed to.
A computer program called Eugene Goostman, which simulates a 13-year-old Ukrainian boy, is said to have passed the Turing test at an event organised by the University of Reading.The test investigates whether people can detect if they are talking to machines or humans.
Faked nude images of more than 100,000 women have been created from social media pictures and shared online, according to a new report. Clothes are digitally removed from pictures of women by Artificial Intelligence (AI), and spread on the messaging app Telegram.
Scientists at the University of Liverpool have unveiled a robotic colleague that has been working non-stop in their lab throughout lockdown. The £100,000 programmable researcher learns from its results to refine its experiments.
This article originally appeared on The Conversation, and is republished under a Creative Commons licence. “I’m sorry, Dave. I’m afraid I can’t do that.
Botometer - an online tool that tracks spam and fake accounts - was used by Mr Musk in a countersuit against Twitter. Using the tool, Mr Musk's team estimated that 33% of "visible accounts" on the social media platform were "false or spam accounts".
It's a fiercely hot afternoon in Milton Keynes and I'm chasing a small orange flag as it waggles just above a line of low garden walls. The flag is attached to a white robot with six wheels and I'm relieved to see that it's slowing down to a halt.
Image source, Getty ImagesA robot broke a seven-year-old boy's finger during a chess match in Moscow last week, Russian news outlets report. "The robot broke the child's finger," Sergey Lazarev, Moscow Chess Federation President, told Tass news agency. "This is of course bad.
Elon Musk likes to have a focus - and this year, it looks like it might be robots. He told investors on a Tesla earnings call his nascent robot plans had "the potential to be more significant than the vehicle business, over time".
William "Red" Whittaker may not be a household name, but he should be. The robotics professor has been leading the development of a tiny wheeled robot called Iris, which could become the first uncrewed rover sent by the US to explore the Moon.
New York City's police (NYPD) say they will stop using robotic dogs following an outcry over their deployment. The NYPD says it has ended a contract with the Boston Dynamics firm for the remote-controlled Digidogs.
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