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Redefine the concept of free will? Only a Nobel laureate would have the nerve. Last year, the Dutch physicist Gerard 't Hooft announced that the weird effects that spring from quantum mechanics arise from a deeper deterministic reality based on classical physics. People objected that his theory appeared to rob us of free will, and now 't Hooft has responded by moving the goalposts. No, we don't have free will as it is...


 determinism freedom will fate philosophy
The free will that humans enjoy is similar to that exercised by animals as simple as flies, a scientist has said. The idea may simply require "free will" to be redefined, but tests show that animal behaviour is neither completely constrained nor completely free. The paper, in Proceedings of the Royal Society B, suggests animals always have a range of options available to them. "Choices" actually fit a complex...


 free will freedom thinking philosophy brain consciousness determinism biology fruit fly perception probability complexity random decision evolution survival animal animal intelligence