Neutrinos are among the fundamental building blocks of matter. They swarm all about us. The Sun, for example, releases them in huge quantities when it fuses hydrogen to make helium - the raw nuclear process at its core. They are, however, very difficult to study because they interact so weakly with normal matter. Hence, their nickname - "ghost particles". Nonetheless, scientists have been able to discern three flavours - electron neutrinos, muon neutrinos, and tau neutrinos. Previous research has characterised two forms of oscillations. The T2K experiment has now seen hints for a third transformation - that of a muon neutrino turning into an electron neutrino.
neutrino particle physics nuclear cosmology antimatter universe Big Bang