Free will similar in animals, humans - but not so free

The free will that humans enjoy is similar to that exercised by animals as simple as flies, a scientist has said. The idea may simply require "free will" to be redefined, but tests show that animal behaviour is neither completely constrained nor completely free. The paper, in Proceedings of the Royal Society B, suggests animals always have a range of options available to them. "Choices" actually fit a complex probability but, at least in humans, are perceived as conscious decisions.


 free will freedom thinking philosophy brain consciousness determinism biology fruit fly perception probability complexity random decision evolution survival animal animal intelligence

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